Dementia may be an extensive term that describes a loss of thinking ability, memory, and other mental abilities. Many conditions can cause dementia. A neurodegenerative disorder accounts for a condition that sums up when the parts of your brain used for learning, memory, deciding, and language are damaged or diseased. Dementia is not a disease instead it is characterized as one of the major neurocognitive disorder. Cause of dementia can nearly be associated with 50 other conditions in which Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common cause of dementia. Based on the part of brain affected, dementia can be split into two groups as Cortical Dementia (problems in the cerebral cortex) and Subcortical Dementia (problems in the brain beneath the cortex).
A particular single test cannot be able to diagnose dementia. Diagnosing patients with dementia involves a series of Medical tests along with consideration of the thorough medical history. After reporting patients with dementia symptoms, doctors will perform a series of physical and neurological exam, mental status tests and laboratory tests to eliminate other causes of the symptoms, as not all uncertainties and memory loss indicate dementia. Some common tests that are used to diagnose dementia include Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini- Cog Test, Clinical dementia rating.
The Reisberg scale is employed to point dementia progression. If the person has no loss of memory and if he or she is mentally stable and healthy, i.e., a normal person, is claimed to be in no cognitive stage of the syndrome. The stage 2 or very mild cognitive decline has no evident symptoms, due to ageing the forgetfulness, which is the common symptom emerges during this stage. During the third stage i.e., mild cognitive decline stage people experience increased forgetfulness, and face difficulty in analyzing words. Stage 4 or moderate cognitive decline includes severe symptoms like decrease in concentration, and therefore the person faces difficulty in taking care of them individually. In stage 5 or moderately severe cognitive decline people have difficulties in completing tasks and on some people, they start to withdraw themselves from social activities. Next is that the middle dementia where the people tend to forget the recent memory activities. The last stage is that they need no ability to speak or communicate. They completely require human help and care.
Alzheimer’s Disease, considered to be one of the main cause of dementia is a onset of condition which is a irreversible brain disorder that slowly destroys the memory, thinking ability and in time, reducing the capability of doing simple tasks. Alzheimer’s is thought to be caused by the abnormal buildup of proteins such as amyloid and tau in and around the brain cells. Exact cause of this disorder is not clear yet since number of things such as ageing, family history, untreated depression, down’s syndrome, cardiovascular disease and many associated diseases can be a cause for this disorder. The way to prevent this condition seems to difficult. Memory loss is taken into consideration as an initial symptom followed by increasing confusion and disorientation.
Secondary to Alzheimer’s disease, vascular disease or vascular cognitive impairment is another cause for dementia. Vascular dementia may be a group of conditions that cause a decline in cognitive skills. People with vascular dementia experience problems with reasoning, judgment, and memory. These changes can occur suddenly, or they will be mild and go unnoticed initially. Stroke is said to be a common cause of vascular dementia which leads to blockage or lack of blood flow to the brain. Reduced blood flow to the brain leads to deprived oxygen rate. Lack of oxygen and blood can damage the brain, even during a short period of your time. Along with this other causes of vascular dementia include narrowed or chronically damaged blood vessels.
Parkinson disease is a movement disorder which is a chronic and progressive over time. This disease occurs as result of decreased dopamine production in brain as dopamine’s responsible to coordinate muscle movements. Low dopamine results in tremors, stiff walking, trouble in maintaining balance which are the symptoms of Parkinson disease along with it leads to depression, dementia, hallucinations and gastrointestinal problems. About 80% of the people with Parkinson disease has develop dementia. The common type of dementia associated with Parkinson’s is LBD. Reason for the development of dementia in Parkinson patient is not completely known.
Abnormal deposits of alpha-synuclein, a protein associates and leads to Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). These protein deposits are commonly called as the Lewy Bodies developing in the nerve cells of the region of brain which is responsible for memory, thinking, reasoning and motor control(movement). Researchers suggests that LBD is found to be accounting for the 5 to 10 percent of dementia cases and third most cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s and Vascular dementia. Symptoms of this mostly results in tremors and muscle stiffness. As a being a progressive disorder, symptoms gets worse over time. There is no complete cure and prevention for this disorder administration of certain medication will ease the symptoms to be manageable.
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) or Pick’s disease is a common term for the group of abnormal brain disorders that initially affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Earlier FTD show symptoms of antisocial behavior along with loss of speech, muscle weakness and unsteadiness. It is notable cause of Dementia in adolescents. Occurrence of representing more than one type of dementia simultaneously in the brain is categorized as Mixed Dementia. Certain autopsy studies of older people with dementia shows a combination of several causes such as Alzheimer’s, Vascular and LBD. Studies and research are ongoing to determine the symptoms of having mixed dementia and to found the ways for treating mixed dementia.
Medical conditions, lifestyle choices, genetics and aging are said to be a important risk factors in developing dementia. The patients with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are also having high risk of developing dementia. As several risk factors that paves way for developing dementia can be prevented such as implementing changes in the routine of diet, exercise, reducing heavy alcohol use, early diagnosis of depression, quit smoking. While on the other hand, risk factors such as family history, age and down syndromes cannot be changed. Causes and risk elements have contributed enormously to Dementia research and the researchers focuses more on measures and treatment ways.
Certain disease linked with dementia as a result of changes in neurological conditions include disorders like Huntington’s Disease - caused by a genetic mutation resulting in a several decline cognitive skills, Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI) – condition due to repetitive head trauma resulting in depression, memory loss and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – a rare brain disorder. Some condition such as infections and immune disorders, Metabolic problems, medication side effects, brain tumor, anoxia that mimic the dementia like symptoms can easily be reversed with treatments. The other factors for Dementia include physical factors like head injuries and Traumatic brain injuries.
Treatment modality is a method that is followed to treat a patient suffering from a disease condition. The treatment modalities have three main approaches, which include medical, psychological and sociocultural approaches. The most important consideration is that, in practice, no single treatment is considered sufficient for the treatment of Dementia. By now the combination therapy which involves the use of two or more drugs proves to be efficient. The other treatment methods which involve the stem cell therapy and gene therapy has now created the spotlight in the Dementia Treatment. Hence the advanced treatment methods can be discussed in the conference.
Psychiatric disorders such as Schizophrenia and depression are found to have a higher impact developing dementia. While there is a lot of similarities between mental illness and dementia there are also some critical differences. Researchers have found that some psychiatric disorders are integral to the dementia phenotype. In many cases of dementia, the complications rate along with that the psychiatric disorders overshadowed the symptoms dementia. Psychiatric disorders seem to usually develop in youth and early adulthood while in contrast dementia conditions arises either midlife or late life. These disorders have been taken into series consideration and focus as these psychiatric symptoms in dementia also been linked to severe cognitive, functional disabilities and results in faster progressions.
Dementia is predominant disorder that affects a greater number of people around the world. Diagnosis of the patient with Dementia frightens the person affected by the syndrome, their family members and caretakers. Better understanding about public awareness of Dementia aids more effective health and social policies. Dementia Awareness in families affected by dementia and the public is important to get a better grasp on how dementia is perceived If it is not understood in detail about the level and depth of public awareness of dementia, then the communication is ineffective with people to help or educate and address misconceptions The Dementia conference discusses the Awareness to achieve higher rate of early diagnosis and the management of the disorder.
Dementia patients need assistance and full-time care as much as drugs. Some common care practices in Dementia are assistance in food and fluid consumption, pain management, social engagement ensuring safety and security of Dementia patients. Main aim of care practices is to ensure cut in hospitalization and psychotropic drugs. Understanding patient’s mood changes, behavior, speech problems and help in rectifying them. Dementia patients need end of life care so qualified nursing staff is needed. Few care practices which are used are indoor and outdoor activities, visual and audio stimulation, Art therapy. Care practices in Dementia have been critical to engage in international Dementia meetings. In need to evolve in Dementia care world gathering and genuine talks on Dementia care is required. The Dementia conference discusses the care practices to decrease the distress among the patient, family and caregivers.
As we all know the care environment can make a huge difference to the lives of people with dementia, clear expressions and assistive technology can help to increase dignity and quality of life of the patients. Nurses are well-positioned to provide comprehensive dementia information and support so that people living with dementia are better equipped to self-manage their health and live well with dementia. Research indicates that participation results in positive wellness outcomes for those living with dementia including improved memory and concentration stimulation, and increased sense of purpose. Nursing management for patients with Dementia includes nursing assessment, nursing diagnosis, nursing care planning and goals, nursing interventions and evaluation.
Scientists are making great pace in identifying potential new ways to assist diagnose, treat, and even prevent Alzheimer’s and related dementias. These advances are happening because thousands of individuals have participated in clinical trials and other studies. Despite there is no drugs for treating dementia, implementing different treatments are showing progress in dementia research. Several steps and breakthrough have been possible in reducing risk factors of dementia. Research are carried out on implementing Gene therapy for treating them as some of the dementias arises due to Gene Mutations. In recent studies blood test for predicting the risk of Alzheimer’s disease are getting even more advanced.
Case reports in Dementia supports the comprehensive report of causes, symptoms, treatment and possible outcome. Each case report distinguishes in conditions such as age, family background, treatment given and effects of it. This all helps to design, categorize the future aspects of disease. Case report will be highly helpful for the researchers to develop new methods for physicians to develop quick diagnosis methods in Dementia patients. Case reports in Dementia gives some thought regarding diagnosis, treatment and level of cure perhaps conceivable prevention to be taken moreover. Be that as it may, most recognized case reports are to be talked in the Dementia conference which would be extremely useful to researchers to carry on with their work.
- Dementia Diagnosis
- Stages in Dementia Progression
- Alzheimer’s Disease
- Vascular Dementia
- Parkinson Disease Dementia
- Dementia with Lewy Body
- Frontotemporal and Mixed dementia
- Risk Factors for dementia
- Disease Correlated with Dementia
- Treatment Modalities of Dementia
- Psychiatry and Dementia
- Dementia Awareness
- Dementia Care
- Dementia Nursing
- Dementia Research
- Case Reports